Active region AR 12158 was responsible on 10 September 2014 for multiple eruptive events including an X-class flare (the most energetic flaring events !) and an Earth-directed coronal mass ejection. This image is an illustration of the extrapolation of magnetic field lines above AR 12158 using satellite observations of the Sun's surface recorded by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft. This magnetic field configuration is non force-free (NFF) and was obtained using the Hu et al. (2010) method. Magnetic loops emerging from the surface are anchored at points of opposite polarities (positive polarity is displayed in white and negative polarity is displayed in black). These loops extend into the solar corona, thousands of kilometers above the surface.
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Image added le 22 December 2017 by