Aristotle was born in 384BC in Stagirus, Macedonia, where his father was court physician to the King. He was sent to Athens in 367BC to study at Plato's Academy. In 342BC he was invited back to Macedonia to tutor the crown prince Alexander (who later left his mark on history as Alexander the Great). Around 335BC he returned to Athens and founded his Lyceum. He died in Chalcis, north of Athens, in 322BC.
The breadth (and volume!) of Aristotle's writings is staggering by any standard. He wrote on philosophy, logics, politics, biology, physics and cosmology. In his On the Heavens (De caelo), Aristotle adopted with some modifications the geocentric planetary model of Eudoxus (ca. 400-347BC) and Callipus (ca. 370-300BC), but ascribed physical reality to the planetary spheres. His physics relies on an essential distinction between the sublunar realm, made of the four elements earth, water, wind and fire, and the celestial realm, made of ether (or "quintessence") and deemed incorruptible.
Aristotle offered the world an internally consistent physics and cosmology of hitherto uncomparable breadth and explanatory power, which was to endure for more than 1200 years. In conjunction with Ptolemy's mathematical model of planetary motions, it was to form the cornerstone of the christian medieval view of the cosmos.
Dicks, D.R. 1970, Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle, Cornell University Press.
Sachs, J. 1995, Aristotle's Physics, Rutgers University Press.
Back to the great moment
To search for a Solar Physicist
To references and further reading
To the GRPS homepage
last modification on january 18 2008 by
Tous droits réservés / Copyrighted by
Université de Montréal