Quasars are exceptionally luminous galaxies which are far brighter than can be explained by normal starlight. A quasar is powered by the release of gravitational energy as matter is pulled toward a supermassive black hole at its centre, a process called accretion. Their extreme brightness makes quasars visible at very great distances.
Team leader Dr. Chris Willott, from the National Research Council's Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, said "We looked at the most distant known quasar, SDSS J1148+5251, with UKIRT. We're seeing this quasar as it looked when its light was emitted 13 billion years ago, back when the universe was only 6% of its current age."
The astronomers used the UKIRT Imager Spectrometer, UIST, to measure the infrared spectrum of the light from the quasar. They looked for a characteristic feature in the spectrum - a line emitted by MgII ions. These are atoms of magnesium with single electrons stripped off. The magnesium ions are part of the gas around the black hole at the heart of the quasar.
Willott explained "We can determine the mass of the black holes in these distant quasars by looking at the MgII emission line and comparing it with the same emission line in closer quasars. The basic idea here is that the width of the line gives an indication of the speed of the gas close to the quasar. More massive black holes will have faster moving material."
The team measured the width of the MgII emission line, which allowed them to measure the mass of the black hole as 3 billion (3,000,000,000) times the mass of our own Sun, or one quadrillion (1,000,000,000,000,000) times the mass of the Earth. They also used the wavelength of the emission line to determine a precise redshift for the quasar of 6.41. The redshift measures the distance to the object, confirming it as the most distant quasar known, approximately 13 billion light years from Earth.
The extreme brightness of this quasar also shows that the black hole in its core is swallowing matter at the maximum rate possible. This maximum rate is called the "Eddington Limit". If the black hole were accreting matter any faster, it would shine even brighter, and the intense luminosity would actually exert enough pressure to stop any more material falling in.
Dr. Ross McLure from the Institute for Astronomy in Edinburgh added "This quasar pinpoints the first massive structures to have formed in the universe. It confirms predictions that such huge black holes do exist so early in the universe, but they are rare. They are also surrounded by a reservoir of fuel which allows them to accrete material right up to the Eddington Limit."
Dr. Matt Jarvis of Oxford University explained what the team plan to do next: "We'll apply our black hole mass measuring techniques to other quasars, over a wide range of redshifts. We hope to trace out the evolution of black holes and the galaxies they reside in from the early universe to the present day."
The research is scheduled to be published on 20th March in the Astrophysical
Journal Letters online edition, appearing in the 10th April paper edition,
Photograph of the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope, atop snow-capped Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. CREDIT: Robin Phillips, Joint Astronomy Centre.
http://outreach.jach.hawaii.edu/pressroom/2003_distantquasar/ukirt.jpg (full size JPEG 100kB) http://outreach.jach.hawaii.edu/pressroom/2003_distantquasar/ukirt_small.jpg (smaller size JPEG 23kB)
Artist's impression of the heart of a quasar, where a black hole is hidden in a disk of gas and dust (the brown and yellow material). The gas and dust is drawn in by the intense gravitational pull of the black hole, swirling as it moves closer. This creates friction, heating the gas and making it shine brightly. CREDIT: NASA Education and Public Outreach at Sonoma State University - Aurore Simonnet, http://epo.sonoma.edu
(full size JPEG 542kB) http://outreach.jach.hawaii.edu/pressroom/2003_distantquasar/quasar_simonnet_small.jpg
(smaller size JPEG 26kB)
Notes for editors:
Black hole mass:
The mass of the black hole in the quasar is approximately 3,000,000,000 solar masses (i.e. 3,000,000,000 times the mass of the Sun). This is also 1,000,000,000,000,000 times the mass of the Earth. It is about 6x10^39 kilograms, that is a 6 followed by 39 zeroes. The presence of such massive black holes so early in the universe is a major constraint on theories of how the universe formed the structure we see today out of very smooth initial conditions.
The team used the new UKIRT Imager Spectrometer (UIST) to obtain simultaneous H and K band near-infrared spectra of the quasar SDSS J1148+5251. The expansion of the universe since light was emitted from this quasar has caused the wavelength of the light to increase such that there is very little emission left in the optical wavelength regime and it has all been redshifted into the near-infrared. They obtained a clear detection of the MgII emission line. The data are of high enough quality to obtain a precise redshift of z = 6.41 +/- 0.01. With a MgII emission line full-width half-maximum of 6000 km/s, they calculate the black hole mass in this quasar to be 3x10^9 solar masses.
The world's largest telescope dedicated solely to infrared astronomy, the 3.8-metre UK Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) is sited near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, at an altitude of 4194 meters above sea level. It is operated by the Joint Astronomy Centre in Hilo, Hawaii, on behalf of the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council.
The UKIRT Imaging Spectrometer (UIST) was designed and built at the UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UK ATC) in Edinburgh. It detects infrared light at wavelengths between 1 and 5 microns with a 1024 x 1024 pixel Indium Antimonide detector array. It can be used for imaging, spectroscopy, integral field spectroscopy, and polarimetry. It cost just under UKP 3M to build and was funded by the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (PPARC).
Dr. Chris Willott,
DAO Research Associate
Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics
National Research Council of Canada
Tel: +1 250 363 8103
Fax: +1 250 363 0045
Dr. Douglas Pierce-Price,
Science Outreach Specialist
Joint Astronomy Centre, Hawaii
Tel: +1 808 969 6524
Fax: +1 808 961 6516
Dr. Ross McLure
Institute for Astronomy,
University of Edinburgh
Tel: +1 44 131 668 8366
Dr. Matt Jarvis
University of Oxford
Tel: +1 44 1865 273435
Fax: +1 44 1865 273390
Joint Astronomy Centre public outreach site:
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